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J A A P   K L I J N S T R A

The entire process





When do I need a mould?

Can I direct-cast any original material 

Can I direct-cast mixed materials like textile, wood, plastics or other materials?

What if there is an inner metal frame?

Can I safely direct-cast fat volumes?




Preparing the original (porous, non-porous, other)

2 halves mould & mother mould / ‘Block’ moulding

Clay bed / No clay bed.

Feeders and vents

Keys for rubber


Treating undercuts (latex/plaster blocks, other?)

Keys for Mother mould (stability for the rubber)

Waxing the surfaces (waxes)

Mother mould (plaster/polyster/Other?)

Removing the clay/cleaning

Thickening feeders and vents

Waxing of surfaces (between rubber and mother mould)

Second half silicone

Key’s for Mother mould, second half

Waxing of surfaces for mother mould, second half

Mother mould, second half

Key’s for entire Mother mould (screws/other?)

Opening of the mould

Extracting the original



Creating a foundry model

Skin’s foundry model: Penciling? Applying? Brushes?

Casting wax (temperatures, timing, thicknesses)

Finishing the foundry model (retouche/modifications)

Spruing (montage) Down up, up down? Feeders/vents/round or square? /Masselottes

Lost investment mould (Italian method/chamotte/ceramic shell?) Square mould, round mould)

Burnout. Lost wax (oven, position in the oven/temperatures/timing)

Burying the mould (necessities/cautions)

Pouring bronze / Variety in “bronze”, Slow or fast? Spoon or crucible?

Breaking lost investment mould (timming, cautions)

Decochage (cleaning) & Sand blasting

Metal chasing/ Chiseling/welding



What is it

Cold/ Warm